Consumer v. Audience

We need to talk about the word “consumer.” 

I hate it. 

I think it makes human beings sound like flesh-eating bacteria. Or maybe post-apocalyptic zombies. Take your pick.

Whatever. I think we should stop using it.

For a while there I thought I was the only person working with brands who felt this way. Then I finally cracked open Marty Neumeier’s book Brand Flip and read this:

“The best customers are no longer consumers or market segments or tiny blips in big data. They’re individuals with hopes, dreams, needs, and emotions. They exercise judgment, indulge in whims, express personal views, and write their own life stories. They’re proactive, skeptical, and creative. They’ve reached the top of Maslow’s Pyramid, where the goals are autonomy, growth, and fulfillment. They don’t ‘consume.'”

Hear hear.

And while we’re at it, can we stop using “user” too? Another terrible word.

There’s no stopping the use of either one of course, not inside the world of marketing and MBAs and spreadsheets and analysts and all that. 

But in my own strategies and strategy teams, I avoid both words as much as I can because I think they are one of the reasons that too many marketing messages fall flat. They’re disconnected from everyday humans because, in terms of language, they focus too much on this abstract thing called a consumer or a user, instead of on the living, breathing people around us everyday. 

Sometimes the fact that I’m avoiding either word is obvious and a colleague or client will ask about it. I’ll tell them that I use the word “audience” or “visitor” instead, since we’re focused on getting people’s attention and attending to them once we have it. That usually does the trick. 

Very smart strategists I know use both words constantly and seem to do fine, so take what I’m saying with a grain of salt. But IMHO the best brands and messages appeal to our humanity by treating us like we actually are human, starting with the words they use to describe us when we’re not around.


Portland, OR / Santa Rosa, CA / Remote Everywhere


What is strategy?

Want to hear something crazy? Most strategists I’ve worked with on both the brand and agency side don’t have a working definition of strategy. They can explain what they do, just not what it is. Blows my mind. Because if a strategist can’t define strategy, then how can they be sure that’s what they’re doing? 

Maybe the place to start is with how many different kinds of strategist there are nowadays. Remember that list from CX Strategist Emily Vernon?

  • Account Strategist
  • Brand Strategist
  • Business Strategist
  • Channel Strategist
  • Client Strategist
  • Communications Strategist
  • Content Strategist
  • Creative Strategist
  • Customer Experience Strategist
  • Digital Strategist
  • Influencer Marketing Strategist
  • Marketing Strategist
  • Media Strategist
  • Omnichannel Strategist
  • Product Strategist
  • Qualitative Strategist
  • Retail Strategist
  • Social Media Strategist
  • Web Strategist

To which I added:

  • CRM Strategist
  • Data Strategist
  • Experience Strategist
  • Experiential Strategist
  • Integrated Strategist
  • UX Strategist

That’s a lot of strategy!

Or maybe not. Maybe the issue is that most strategists work on tactics rather than strategy. Which makes sense — you always need to ladder your tactics up to some strategy somewhere and strategists are uniquely suited to doing that. But without a working definition, I think (because I see it happen too often) that both strategists and clients can confuse tactics for strategy. The obvious problem there is that the tactical plan might not address a client’s true strategic needs, and that has all sorts of downstream implications.

We’ll talk about some of those in a bit. For now, let me walk you through how I came up with my own working definition.


Introducing Blair Enns

Blair Enns spent several decade in new business and account management for some of the world’s largest advertising agencies, before leaving to start his own company Win Without Pitching

On his Win Without Pitching blog, Enns writes “a hobby of mine for many years now has been collecting answers to the question ‘What is strategy?’ Strategy to a designer is the thinking that precedes and wraps the design solution. Strategy to a CEO is a series of decisions across all aspects of the organization that leads to a sustainable marketplace advantage and corresponding long-term financial success.”

There’s a lot to unpack there, but before we do let’s meet Michael Porter.


Introducing Michael Porter

Michael Porter is the founder of the modern strategy field, the author of 19 books and maybe a gazillion articles, plus he’s the Bishop William Lawrence University Professor at Harvard Business School. His reputation is such that when he speaks, business leaders listen.

Arguing against what a lot of people call strategy, Porter declares that it is not:

  • A vision or mission: “Our strategy is to change the world by…”
  • Aspirations or goals: “Our strategy is to be the leader in…”
  • Actions or tactics: “Our strategy is to engage consumers through…”

Instead, Porter claims that strategy is about competing to be unique, not competing to be the best. “The worst error in strategy,” he says, “is to compete with rivals on the same dimensions.”

According to Porter, a strategy should focus on:

  • A unique value proposition compared to other orgs 
  • A different tailored value chain 
  • Clear tradeoffs, and choosing what not to do 
  • Activities that fit together and reinforce each other 
  • Strategic continuity with continual improvement 

While each bullet point is crucial to Porter’s definition, the words unique and different do the heavy lifting there. 

Where Enns and Porter Agree

Enns comes at the idea of being unique from a different angle, namely that differentiation should be the goal of creative practitioners and that only comes through expertise.

“Expertise is the only valid basis for differentiating ourselves from the competition,” he writes in The Win Without Pitching Manifesto. “Not personality. Not process. Not price.”

I’ll have a lot to say about expertise later. For now, let me explain how I lean into uniqueness and differentiation as the foundation for my working definition of strategy.


Getting to a Simple Definition

Anyone who’s worked with me over the years has heard me utter the phrase ‘simple is hard.’

By that I mean that anyone can come up with a complicated explanation for complicated things, but it takes hard work to come up with the simplest explanation possible for complicated things, especially one that can survive years of stress testing.

Why focus on simple? Because IMHO the most useful ideas stick with us when they are short, sharp, and memorable. Complex jargon has the opposite effect, pushing people away from understanding the concept we’re trying to get across. Sometimes that’s on purpose. I’ve met my fair share of people who use jargon to demonstrate their superior expertise or hide the lack of same.

But since my entire career has been about communicating complicated ideas as clearly as I can to colleagues, clients and customers, the idea of keeping it simple has naturally trickled down into how I work. So because Porter’s definition is a bit too jargony for my taste, over the years I’ve refined it to this:

Strategy is:

  • A sustainable plan to succeed 
  • By meeting a customer need 
  • Using a unique approach 
  • That’s hard for competitors to copy 

Simple and succinct, but useful in developing, say, a content or CRM strategy because you know right away your goal is to start with a differentiated product or position, one that sends a clear signal to the right audience in a marketplace full of noise. 

“Strategy is a sustainable plan to succeed by meeting a customer need, using a unique approach that’s hard for competitors to copy.”

What About Brand Strategy?

Also simple. Just make sure the brand gets the credit, like so: 

A Brand Strategy is:

  • A sustainable plan to succeed 
  • That credits a brand for 
  • Meeting a customer need 
  • Using a unique approach 
  • That’s hard for competitors to copy

And that’s it. By keeping my working definition of strategy that clear and specific, as both a writer and strategist I always have a good idea of what I need to do on any project, for any brand.


Portland, OR / Santa Rosa, CA / Remote Everywhere


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